I recently updated my self-hosted WordPress install, and everything seemed fine until I went to write a new blog post. That’s when I found that the toolbar buttons were missing.
I don’t use the Visual editor in WordPress, preferring to type the text/HTML out myself. The Visual editor’s toolbar was available.
I found a lot of people running into this issue over the years. Suggestions ran from reinstalling the WordPress installation to reinstalling TinyMCE in the wp-includes/js directory to permissions issues to disabling plugins.
I’m partially annoyed because TinyMCE is for the Visual editor, not the Text editor, and searching for the Text editor specifically still gives you this advice which is a waste of time.
But anyway, I determined it was my All-in-One SEO plugin being out of date. Once I updated it, I was able to see the toolbar in my Text editor again.
I hope this helps someone else fix similar issues much faster than I did.